The following glossary of terms will enable a better understanding of the development environment.

Anti-social behaviour

Anti-social behavior can generally be characterised as an overall lack of adherence to social standards that allow members of a society to coexist peacefully. Applied sports research Applied sports research refers to research undertaken by individuals or institutions that is practical and pertinent to sport and recreation.


A club is an association of two or more people united by a common interest, in this case sport and recreation. In the sports sector a club provides a structured, constituted base for participation in sport and serves as a vehicle for long term participant development as well as mentorship programmes to cater for high performance.

Club development

Club development refers to initiatives aimed at improving the manner in which a club is run in order to provide the best possible environment for members and the wider community. For the purpose of this White Paper the purpose of club development is to establish a clear and seamless pathway for athletes through which they can progress from the entry level of the sports continuum to the highest echelons of competition. This development refers to the sports specific clubs affiliated as part of the structure of recognised national sports federations. There are also multi-coded sports and/or community clubs where the emphasis is on organised sport and recreation activities rather than sports specific development.


Constitution means the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act No. 108 of 1996). Corporate governance Corporate governance refers to the practices, principles and values applied when managing and administrating an organisation.

Disadvantaged communities

Communities are regarded as disadvantaged if they have been subjected to the historical application of practices, policies or programmes that only meet the needs of certain groups in specific areas. These communities have very little access to resources and services resulting in a perpetuation of the gap between the privileged and underprivileged.

Elite sport

Elite sport is highly organised and competitive. It represents the top level of the sports development continuum. For the purposes of this White Paper it is used interchangeably with ‘high performance sport’ and ‘a winning nation’.


Equity refers to fairness and impartiality towards all concerned, based on the principles of evenhanded dealing. It implies giving as much advantage, consideration, or latitude to one party as it is given to another. At the core of equity is the issue of justice and rules and regulations to ensure freedom from bias or discrimination.


Gender refers to socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.

Marginalised groups

Being marginalised refers to being treated separately from the rest of the society, forced to occupy the fringes and edges. Along with material deprivation, marginalised individuals are often also excluded from services, programmes, and policies. An example of individual marginalisation is the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labour force. Another example is women who are sidelined from executive positions and continue to earn less than men in upper management positions. Other groups often regarded as marginalised are people living in rural areas and the youth.

Mass participation

Mass participation represents the lower section of the sports development continuum and includes efforts to improve participation opportunities in sport and recreation. Initiatives are focused on introducing as many people as possible to a wide range of sport and recreation activities. There are a wide range of activities that contribute to the purpose of involving as many people as possible in sport and healthy physical activities such as:

  • Modified sport: The main aim of modified sport is to introduce new participants to sport in a simplified manner. To achieve this, the dimensions of the playing field, equipment, rules and conditions of play are modified to expose especially young people to a sport. The focus of modified sport is on fun and enjoyment rather than rules and competition.
  • Grassroots sport: Grassroots sport is very similar to mass participation (see definition of mass participation). The distinction is that grassroots sport focuses on the ‘poorest of the poor’ in predominately disadvantaged and rural areas
  • Recreation: According to LARASA recreation is an essential service promoted through the public service for all citizens. It includes services and programmes which an individual would voluntarily engage in during ones free time to achieve a satisfying experience. For the purpose of this White Paper a distinction is made between active and passive recreation (see ‘Clarifying sport and recreation’).

National Sport and Recreation Plan

The National Sport and Recreation Plan refers to the plan that will reflect the practical implementation of the policies and outputs as captured in the White Paper. In other words the White Paper will reflect the ‘what’ whilst the National Sport and Recreation Plan will indicate the ‘how’.

Nation building

Nation building in the context of this White Paper refers to fostering a South African identity, national unity and promoting a common sense of belonging.


Rural areas are large and isolated areas of an open country with a low population density.

Social cohesion

Social cohesion is defined as the degree of social integration and inclusion in communities and society at large, and the extent to which mutual solidarity finds expression itself among individuals and communities. In terms of this definition, a community or society is cohesive to the extent that the inequalities, exclusions and disparities based on ethnicity, gender, class, nationality, age, disability or any other distinctions which engender divisions distrust and conflict are reduced and/or eliminated in a planned and sustained manner. This, with community members and citizens, as active participants, work together for the attainment of shared goals, designed and agreed upon to improve the living conditions for all. Within a sporting context social cohesion is the process by which efforts are made to ensure equal opportunities that everyone, regardless of their background, can achieve their full potential in life. Such efforts include policies and actions that promote equal access to (public) services as well as enable citizen’s participation in the decision-making processes that affect their lives.

South African Sports Confederation and Olympic Committee (SASCOC)

SASCOC refers to the ‘Sports Confederation’ recognised by the Minister of Sport and Recreation in terms of the National Sport and Recreation Amendment Act, 2007 (Act No. 18 of 2007). It is representative of sport or recreation bodies, including Olympic national federations.

Sport and Recreation South Africa (SRSA)

SRSA is the national department responsible for sport and recreation in South Africa. In line with the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act No. 108 of 1996), SRSA has been assigned the powers and functions to develop and implement national policies and programmes regarding sport and recreation in the country. In this document the term ‘department’ will be used interchangeably with ‘SRSA’.

Sport for Development and Peace

The Sport for Development and Peace concept evolved from a growing recognition that well designed sport-based initiatives that incorporate the best values of sport can be powerful, practical, and cost-effective tools to achieve development and peace objectives. Sport is viewed both as valuable in itself and as a means to achieving broader aims for development and peace.

Sports science

Sports science is a discipline that studies the application of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sporting performance. In the context of this White Paper it is referred to in a holistic way to include different disciplines such as biokinetics, sports psychology, sports nutrition, sports optometry, sports dentistry, sports physiotherapy, technical development aids, life skills and any other matters connected to the above-mentioned support services. Strategic For the purpose of this White Paper an activity is strategic if it has an identifiable impact on the delivery of the South African Government’s desired outcomes.

That means that it must contribute to the delivery of SRSA’s strategic priorities, as set by Ministers, and will generally mean:

  • it makes a contribution to the delivery of the department’s strategic priorities; or
  • it makes a contribution to the delivery of wider government priorities.

Talent identification and development

Formal talent identification involves the screening of children and adolescents using selected tests of physical, physiological and skill attributes.